How Toddlers Learn Biodiversity of Ocean Ecosystems

Biodiversity of Ocean Ecosystems

The deep ocean begins where the sunlight fades, at 200 meters (656 feet), and extends to where no light penetrates. The water contains little oxygen, and the temperature is just above freezing. Pressures reach up to 1,000 times greater than the pressure at the surface. Ocean researchers estimate 100 million species exist in the deep ocean — more biological diversity than all terrestrial ecosystems combined.

Abyssal Plains

Approximately half of the seafloor consists of soft mud flats dotted with aggregates of minerals forming hard surfaces. Bottom-dwelling fish and invertebrates including worms, barnacles, brittle stars, crabs, mollusks, star fish, sea anemones, sponges, sea pens and sea cucumbers thrive on the soft bottom. Larger species live on stones and nodules of manganese, thriving on nutrient-rich currents that circulate just above the seafloor, while bacteria thrive on ancient sediment hundreds of meters beneath it.

Cold-Water Corals

Deep sea corals capture food particles from the water column and thrive without sunlight. One of the most biologically diverse ecosystems in the deep ocean, cold-water corals provide habitat for more than 1,300 species in the northeastern Atlantic alone. Anemones, bristleworms, clams, crabs, hydroids, limpets, nudibranchs, octopi, sea mats, snails and sponges thrive among the corals. Some corals form extensive, complex reefs. One of the largest Lophelia reefs off the Norwegian coast is more than 8,000 years old.

Cold Seep Beds

Chemosynthetic communities form where gas hydrates seep from the ocean bottom and some cold seep beds cover more than a kilometer. These beds have high microbial productivity that allows tube worms, clams and mussels to form structures as high as 2 meters (6.6 feet). Similar to the communities that form around hydrothermal vents, organisms living in cold seep beds rely on hydrocarbons or hydrogen sulfide gas for their carbon and energy needs.

Sponge Fields

Individual sponges may reach 100 years of age, weighing up to 80 kilograms (176 pounds). Sponge fields often grow into massive reefs. Aggregations of massive sponges create three-dimensional structures that provide habitat, hunting and shelter for other marine organisms, including important commercial fish such as cod, ling and redfish. A 9,000-year-old glass sponge reef off the coast of British Columbia covers 700 square kilometers (270 square miles), and in some areas is 19 meters (62 feet) high.

Hydro thermal Vents

Water near hydrothermal vents consists of toxic chemicals and reaches 400 degrees Celsius (752 degrees Fahrenheit). Communities of anemones, crabs, mollusks, shrimps, soft corals and worms thrive by converting sulfur-rich emissions into energy. The world’s fastest growing invertebrate, a giant worm that lacks a mouth and digestive system, has bacteria in a special organ that allows it to grow about 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in 10 days. More than 75 percent of the species living around hydrothermal vents are endemic, existing nowhere else on the planet.

Seamounts

Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the highest mountain on the planet, is an underwater mountain more than 9,144 meters (30,000 feet) high. Until their discovery in 2000, seamount ecosystems were largely unknown, and researchers have just begun to understand their ecological importance. Seamounts may act as oases for life amid barren areas along the deep ocean floor. Scientists are also studying the relationships between ocean currents and underwater mountains and the role they may play in the creation biological hotspots, isolated areas critical to the development of new species, endemism and biodiversity.

ARTICLES

How to Create Sensory Based Arts and Crafts Just like toddlers, preschoolers learn by experiencing life hands on. If they unroll the toilet paper, they learn that it can go on and on seemingly f...
TJX 24/7 Customer Service & Support Number Are you looking for  Customer Care Service &  Support Technical Assistance ,Customer Email Support Assistance like Telephone Number  ,Mobile Numbe...
How It Works: Apple Store & Apple Tunes Hi ,let I share my opinion about apple products because what I thought & feel about Steve jobs dreams how to fulfill. Is it everyone has Apple I p...
Memory Strategy for Teaching Preschoolers Colors Skip If saying, "ROYGBIV" sounds completely weird, yet totally familiar, that's because it's a memory strategy that you probably learned when you were youn...
H&M Group 24/7 Customer Service Phone Numbers Welcome to Sevenbucket.com It is the source of customers’ trust and .sharing reliable information about Company’s around the world. We provide all Com...
How To Share National Child Safety Seat Requirements Skip According to the American Academy of Pediatrics' HealthyChildren.org website, thousands of children are killed each year in car accidents, making car ...
Apple Retail Store Customer Support Number Belgium Welcome to Sevenbucket.com It is the source of customers’ trust and .sharing reliable information about Company’s around the world. We provide all Com...
JCPenny 24/7 Customer Service & Support Phone Numbers Are you looking for  Customer Care Service &  Support Technical Assistance ,Customer Email Support Assistance like Telephone Number  ,Mobile Numbe...
How Toddlers Make a Stuff to Do With Family in Bartlett Bartlett, Tennessee is a family-oriented community, so you don't have to look too far to find some fun family activities. Whether you are a tightly kn...
CashNet: Customer Service & Support Number Are you looking for CashNet Customer support service number & Email Support, We are here to help, enhance, and impressive the customer satisfactio...
How To Change Negative Thoughts in Toddlers Intrusive thoughts are universal among humans, and toddlers are not an exception. When toddlers become distressed, upset, or have difficulty managing ...
How to Use Summertime Activities to Do With Toddlers Summer is a mixed blessing of sweltering days, cranky moods, fun things to do and blessed evening breezes. In summer, relief from the heat also can me...
How To Make Positive and Effective Ways to Discipline a Child Skip Discipline is one of those not-so-fun parts of being a parent. Face it: your precious little baby has grown up into a toddler who occasionally misbeha...
How to Make Daily Checklist for your Babysitters When you hire new babysitter for your little one, you might ask her what’s in her babysitter’s tool kit. If she looks clueless, you might want to look...
How Books Can Help Toddlers Build Their Self Esteem When your toddler comes to you with book in hand and lisps, “Momma, read me,” his words melt your heart and make you smile because you know that snugg...
How to Use Sending a Text via Email on Verizon Verizon customers with text messaging service automatically have access to Vtext.com, a companion text messaging website and a set of messaging featur...
Mid America Wealth Management: Customer Service & Support Number Across Universe Are you looking for Mid America Wealth Management Customer support service number & Email Support, We are here to help, enhance, and impressive th...
Electronic Arts Orlando : Customer Service & Support Number Sevenbucket .com will Electronic Arts Orlando support Customer Care Support& Customer Support Technical Assistance & Customer Email Support As...
Importance of Caregiver Parent Communication Preschooler Skip Sure, you painstakingly interviewed caregivers and made sure they knew their Sesame Street from their Caillou, but you're not done yet. Once you've en...
How to share signs of impassivity in toddlers skip Parenting a toddler is not for the faint-hearted. Suddenly, your sweet baby is yelling, "No!" and trying to run into the street. You start to worry th...
Technical Instructions for How To Use Wireless Expanders When first released in 1997, the original 802.11-1997 Wi-Fi standard delivered transmission speeds of only 2Mbits per second and was only possible wit...
How to Use St. Patrick’s Day Art Activities for Toddlers Skip Your toddler's current understanding of St. Patrick's Day might be limited to "The day Mom and Dad drink that funny green stuff," or "When we get to e...
How To Make Physical Development in Boys While environmental, nutritional and genetic factors influence the growth of all young children, few mothers would be surprised to learn there are dev...
Learning to talk for toddler’s development Learning to talk is one of the most important milestones in a toddler's development. Parents, especially first-time parents, often feel anxious if the...
Abeka Book: Customer Service & Support Number Are you looking for Abeka Book Customer support service number & Email Support, We are here to help, enhance, and impressive the customer satisfac...

Author: vijayanand